Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 2013, 1(5), 77-82
DOI: 10.12691/JBMS-1-5-1
Original Research

Measuring the Performance of Dry Bulk Cargo Loading and Unloading Operation: Latakia Case Study

Hassan Jafari1,

1Faculty of Maritime Economics & Management, Khoramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khoramshahr, Khuzestan province, Iran

Pub. Date: September 26, 2013

Cite this paper

Hassan Jafari. Measuring the Performance of Dry Bulk Cargo Loading and Unloading Operation: Latakia Case Study. Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 2013; 1(5):77-82. doi: 10.12691/JBMS-1-5-1


Aimed at detection and prioritization of causes of delay in dry bulk cargo loading/unloading operation at the relevant terminal of Latakia port of Syria, the present research has been conducted by use of PROMETHEE method in three stages. In the first stage, the number of lags and halts in loading/unloading operation (hereinafter referred to as L/U operation) and the involving causes during a specific period were studied. As well, brain storming cessions attended by experts from the mentioned terminal were held during which seventeen numbers of causes of delay were detected. Then, based on the criteria of determination of causes occurrence probability (occurrence frequency), the extent of causes impact on process after occurrence (severity) and probability of detection of causes before having impact on the process (detection), the causes were scored in form of a scale ranging from 1 to 10. In the second stage, using AHP method, the mentioned criteria were weighted. The criterion of occurrence probability was the most weighted (0.43) and the criterion of detection probability was the least weighted (0.26). Based on the obtained scores by each one of the causes, the matrix of decision making was formed and the mentioned causes were ranked by use of PROMETHEE method.


dry bulk cargo, loading/unloading operation, Latakia port, PROMETHEE


Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Yousefi, H., Jafari, H., Rash, K., Khosheghbal, B., & Dadkhah, A. (2012). Evaluation of Causes of Delay in Container Handling Operation at Lebanese Container Ports (Case Study Beirut Container Terminal). International Journal of Accounting and Financial Management. Vol.5. December 2012.
[2]  Castillo-Manzano, J. I., Castro-Nuño, M., Laxe, F. G., López-Valpuesta, L., & Teresa Arévalo-Quijada, M. (2009). Low-cost port competitiveness index: Implementation in the Spanish port system. Marine Policy, 33(4), 591-598.
[3]  Saeidi, N., Jafari, H., Khosheghbal, B., & Alaei, M. (2013). Managing the Causes of Delay in General Cargo Handling Operation. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research. 3(4)419-424.
[4]  Jagerman, D., &Altiok, T. (2003). Vessel arrival process and queueing in marine ports handling bulk materials. Queueing systems, 45(3), 223-243.
[5]  Malchow, M., &Kanafani, A. (2001). A disaggregate analysis of factors influencing port selection. Maritime Policy & Management, 28(3), 265-277.
[6]  Saeidi, Jafari, H., Amli. Zaersoleymani. (2013). Container Repositioning Management in Liner Shipping Industry. Management Science Letters, 3 (6): 1795-1804.
[7]  Murphy, P. R., Daley, J. M., &Dalenberg, D. R. (1992). Port selection criteria: an application of a transportation research framework. Logistics and Transportation Review, 28(3).
[8]  Jafari, H., (2013). Increase the Efficiency Rate of Container Loading and Unloading Using Six Sigma Method. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences. 4 (6): 1438-1447.
[9]  Jafari, H., (2013). Empirical Study the Status of Necessary Infrastructure for Knowledge Management Implementation in Southern Ports of Iran. International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research. Vol., 2 (4), 426-433, 2013.
[10]  Wadhwa, L. C. (1992). Planning operations of bulk loading terminals by simulation. Journal of waterway, port, coastal, and ocean engineering, 118(3), 300-315.
[11]  Jafari, H., (2013). Identification and Prioritization of Causes of Halt and Lag in Container Handling Operation. International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research. 2 (3), 345-353, 2013.
[12]  Marlow, P. B., &PaixãoCasaca, A. C. (2003). Measuring lean ports performance. International Journal of Transport Management, 1(4), 189-202.
[13]  Cullinane, K., Wang, T. F., Song, D. W., &Ji, P. (2006). The technical efficiency of container ports: comparing data envelopment analysis and stochastic frontier analysis. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 40(4), 354-374.
[14]  Al-Eraqi, A. S., Mustafa, A., &Khader, A. T. (2010). An extended DEA windows analysis: Middle East and East African seaports. Journal of Economic Studies, 37(2), 208-218.
[15]  Saaty, T. 1977. A Scaling Method for Priorities in Hierarchical Structure. Journal of Mathematical Psycology. 12(1): 30-47.
[16]  Saaty, T. 1990. How to Make Decisions; the AHP. European Journal of Operation Research. 48 (1): 9-26.
[17]  Albadvi, A., Chaharsooghi, S. K., and Esfahanipour, A. 2007. Decision making in stock trading: An application of ROMETHEE. European Journal of Operational Research. 177: 673-683.
[18]  Brans, J. P., Vincke, P. H., and Mareschall, B. 1986. How to select and how to rank projects: The PROMETHEE method. European Journal of Operational Research. 14: 228-238.
[19]  Brans, J. P., and Mareschall, B. 1994. The PROMCALC and GAIA decision support system for multi-criteria decision aid. Decision Support Systems. 12: 297-310.
[20]  Brans, J. P., and Vincke, P. H. 1985. A preference ranking organization method. Management Science. 31: 647-656.
[21]  Mergias, I., Moustakas, K., Papadopoulos, A., and Loizidou, M. 2007. Multi-criteria decision aid approach for the selection of the best compromise management scheme for ELVs: The case of Cyprus. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 147: 706-717.
[22]  Nijkamp, P., Rietveld, P., and Voogd, H. 1990. Multicriteria evaluation in physical planning. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.
[23]  Wang, J. J., and Yang, D. L. 2007. Using a hybrid multi-criteria decision aid method for information systems outsourcing. Computers and Operation Research. 34: 3691-3700.