Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 2013, 1(5), 83-95
DOI: 10.12691/JBMS-1-5-2
Original Research

Construct Specification and Misspecification within the Application of Push-Pull-Mooring Theory of Switching Behaviour

Simon Gyasi Nimako1, and Benjamin A. Ntim2

1Department of Management Studies Education, University of Education, Winneba, Kumasi, Ghana

2Department of Innovation and Industrial Partnerships, Accra Institute of Technology, Ghana

Pub. Date: October 11, 2013

Cite this paper

Simon Gyasi Nimako and Benjamin A. Ntim. Construct Specification and Misspecification within the Application of Push-Pull-Mooring Theory of Switching Behaviour. Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 2013; 1(5):83-95. doi: 10.12691/JBMS-1-5-2


This paper principally addresses the issue of construct specification and misspecification within the context of the application of Push-Pull-Mooring (PPM) theory of consumer switching behaviour (CSB), and what implications it has for practicing marketing researchers. Despite the prospects of the PPM framework as a dominant paradigm for current and future research, there is evidence of divergent specification of constructs for the PPM framework in empirical studies. This study addresses this problem by applying empirical guidelines to determine the correct specification for the PPM framework, and uses an empirical illustration to demonstrate the potential consequence of misspecifying the PPM constructs in business. The findings indicate that about 67% level of construct misspecification exist in available research applying the PPM model in CSB literature. Pull, Push, and Mooring effects are identified as multi-dimensional construct that should follow a first-order reflective, second-order formative specification in the application of the full model. The findings also indicate that misspecification has potentially negative consequence on the validity, content and parsimony of measurement models in the PPM framework. Recommendations for practicing researchers are discussed. The paper furthers our understanding of construct specification and misspecification in theory development in business research.


formative construct, reflective construct, Push-Pull-Mooring Theory, construct misspecification, switching behaviour, structural Equation Modelling


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