Skip Navigation Links.
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 12 (2024)</span>Volume 12 (2024)
Issue 2, Volume 12, 2024
Issue 1, Volume 12, 2024
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 11 (2023)</span>Volume 11 (2023)
Issue 6, Volume 11, 2023
Issue 5, Volume 11, 2023
Issue 4, Volume 11, 2023
Issue 3, Volume 11, 2023
Issue 2, Volume 11, 2023
Issue 1, Volume 11, 2023
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 10 (2022)</span>Volume 10 (2022)
Issue 4, Volume 10, 2022
Issue 3, Volume 10, 2022
Issue 2, Volume 10, 2022
Issue 1, Volume 10, 2022
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 9 (2021)</span>Volume 9 (2021)
Issue 4, Volume 9, 2021
Issue 3, Volume 9, 2021
Issue 2, Volume 9, 2021
Issue 1, Volume 9, 2021
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 8 (2020)</span>Volume 8 (2020)
Issue 3, Volume 8, 2020
Issue 2, Volume 8, 2020
Issue 1, Volume 8, 2020
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 7 (2019)</span>Volume 7 (2019)
Issue 3, Volume 7, 2019
Issue 2, Volume 7, 2019
Issue 1, Volume 7, 2019
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 6 (2018)</span>Volume 6 (2018)
Issue 4, Volume 6, 2018
Issue 3, Volume 6, 2018
Issue 2, Volume 6, 2018
Issue 1, Volume 6, 2018
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 5 (2017)</span>Volume 5 (2017)
Issue 4, Volume 5, 2017
Issue 3, Volume 5, 2017
Issue 2, Volume 5, 2017
Issue 1, Volume 5, 2017
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 4 (2016)</span>Volume 4 (2016)
Issue 6, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 5, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 4, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 3, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 2, Volume 4, 2016
Issue 1, Volume 4, 2016
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 3 (2015)</span>Volume 3 (2015)
Issue 5, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 4, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 3, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 2, Volume 3, 2015
Issue 1, Volume 3, 2015
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 2 (2014)</span>Volume 2 (2014)
Issue 6, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 5, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 3A, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 4, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 3, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 2, Volume 2, 2014
Issue 1, Volume 2, 2014
Collapse <span class="m110 colortj mt20 fontw700">Volume 1 (2013)</span>Volume 1 (2013)
Issue 6, Volume 1, 2013
Issue 5, Volume 1, 2013
Issue 4, Volume 1, 2013
Issue 3, Volume 1, 2013
Issue 2, Volume 1, 2013
Issue 1, Volume 1, 2013
Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 2023, 11(6), 317-342
DOI: 10.12691/JBMS-11-6-3
Original Research

The Impact of Applying Supply Chain Practices to Develop Crisis Responsiveness (Applied Study on Pharmaceutical Companies)

Walaa Zakaria Abd El hady1, and Amal Mustafa Asfour2

1Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Graduate School of Business (AASTMT), Cairo, Egypt

2Associate Professor of Business Administration, Former director of Arab Academy for Science Technology & Maritime Transport Port Said branch

Pub. Date: December 19, 2023

Cite this paper

Walaa Zakaria Abd El hady and Amal Mustafa Asfour. The Impact of Applying Supply Chain Practices to Develop Crisis Responsiveness (Applied Study on Pharmaceutical Companies). Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 2023; 11(6):317-342. doi: 10.12691/JBMS-11-6-3


Purpose: Through global Supply Chain Management SCM, performance is attained, and suppliers and clients are key contributors. Thus, one of the key problems facing firms is their ability to create extensive networks of suppliers and customers, and then to structure and manage those networks. These abilities support businesses in gaining agility and flexibility, keeping them competitive and enabling them to incorporate innovations in their supply chain operations with all of their partners. Therefore, the importance of the science and art of Supply Chain Management SCM is the most important issue nowadays. Due to the pharmaceutical industry's prominence in the Egyptian economy, businesses have begun to investigate how supply chain management strategies enhance organizational responsiveness, particularly during times of crisis. These ideas include :( 1) Supply chain management procedures, which cover supplier collaboration, customer relationships, and information sharing; (2) Crisis responsiveness of the organization, which covers operational system responsiveness, logistic process responsiveness, and supplier network responsiveness; (3) A company's competitive advantage (long term success). Aim and objectives: Examine the impact of supply chain management strategies, including cooperative relationships with strategic suppliers, information exchange, and supply chain responsiveness. This study also explores the relationship between supply chain responsiveness and the firm's operational system, logistical process, supplier network, and competitive advantage. Research methodology: the paper adopts the positivism philosophy and follows a deductive approach. Using a qualitative design with survey strategy targeting, the Sample size of 382 from 20 companies from all sector divisions operating in Egypt. Main results: The study found that dimensions of Supply Chain Practices directly impact both Crisis Responsiveness. Recommendations: Businesses try to qualify employees to prepare them for growth and change. Businesses must define flexible, realistic, and achievable objectives that are structured, controlled, and prioritized within the industry in accordance with their importance. Limitations and Future Work researchers should consider that participants with low levels of English literacy would not be able to reply to the survey. Future research should include bilingual questionnaires to boost participation. The study focused on supply chain practices (as an independent variable). Therefore, it is suggested to study the factors affecting organizational crisis responsiveness.


supply chain management, supply chain practices, strategic supplier partnership, customer relationship management, communication, information sharing, logistic process responsiveness, crisis responsiveness, operation system responsiveness, organization long term success, flexibility, agility, competitive advantage


Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  supply chain practices and performance: the indirect effects of supply chain integration Veera Pandiyan Kaliani Sundram Centre for Technology and Supply Chain Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia V.G.R. Chandran Department of Development Studies, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and Muhammad Awais Bhatti College of Business Administration, King Faisal University, Al Hufūf, Saudi Arabia*: An International Journal, Vol. 23 Iss 6 pp. 1445 – 1471* Received 3 March 2015 Revised 2 October 2015 Accepted 21 October 2015.
[2]  The effect of supply chain practices on retailer performance with information technology as moderating variable Zeplin Jiwa Husada Tarigana, Juan Alexander Jiputraa and Hotlan Siagiana International Journal of Data and Network Science 5 (2021) 47–54* © 2021 by the authors; licensee Growing Science, Canada.
[3]  The effect of supply chain management on competitive advantage: The mediating role of information technology Amineh A. Khaddama*, Hani J. Irtaimehb and Basema S. Baderba Amman Arab University, Jordan b Hani J. Irtaimeh, The World Islamic for Science & Education University, Jordan* Uncertain Supply Chain Management 8 (2020) 547–562.
[4]  Impact of sustainable supply chain management and customer relationship management on organizational performance * Saikat Das and H.M. Kamrul Hassan Department of Marketing, University of Chittagong, Chattogram, Bangladesh* International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management Vol. 71 No. 6, 2022 pp. 2140-2160 © Emerald Publishing Limited 1741-0401.
[5]  Supply Chain Management Practices, Competitive Advantages and Firm Performance: A Case of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Vietnam*Duong Vu Xuan Quynh, Nguyen Hoang Huy International University-Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam *Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, March 2018, Vol. 14, No. 3, 136-146.
[6]  Competitive Advantage: Exploring the Role of Partnership with Suppliers, Customer Relationship and Information Sharing as Antecedents*Wahyuddin Latunreng, Chairun Nasirin. Department of Business Administration Faculty of Administration Science Institute STIAMI Jakarta, Indonesia Department of Health Administration, Collage of Health Science (STIKES) Mataram, Indonesia*Int. J Sup. Chain. Mgt Vol. 8, No. 6, December 2019.
[7]  Supply Chain Strategy and the Role of Suppliers: Evidence from the Indian Sub-Continent* Muhammed Shakeel Sadiq Jajja Vijay R. Kannan Shaukat Ali Brah Syed Zahoor Hassan* The authors gratefully acknowledge the institutional and financial support of the Association of Management Development Institutions in South Asia (AMDISA) that facilitated the collection of data in India.
[8]  The Importance of Key Supplier Relationship Management in Supply * Christoph Teller (corresponding author) Surrey Business School, University of Surrey GU2 7HX Guildford, United Kingdom; Herbert Kotzab Institute for Logistics and Supply Chain Management, University of Bremen 2000 Bremen, Germany;; David B. Grant Logistics Institute, University of Hull HU6 7RX Hull, United Kingdom; Christina Holweg Department of Marketing; Vienna University of Economics and Business 1020 Vienna, Austria*Chains (published in the International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management in 2016.
[9]  The relationship between a company and its customers Hamid Tohidi School of Industrial Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran E-mail: Mohammad Mehdi Jabbari Department of Electrical Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran* International Journal Of Business And Management Studies Vol 4, No 2, 2012 ISSN: 1309-8047 (Online) 45.
[10]  The critical success factors for customer relationship management implementation: a systematic literature review* Meyliana Faculty of Computer Science, University of Indonesia, Depok, 16424, Indonesia and School of Information Systems, Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta, 11480, Indonesia Email: Email: *Corresponding author Achmad Nizar Hidayanto and Eko K. Budiardjo Faculty of Computer Science, University of Indonesia, Depok, 16424, Indonesia Email: Email:* Int. J. Business Information Systems, Vol. 23, No. 2, 2016.
[11]  Factors affecting customer relationship management practices in Thai academic libraries Piyawan Siriprasoetsin, Kulthida Tuamsuk, Cholabhat Vongprasert Department of Information Technology, Maejo University, Thailand - Information and Communication Management Program, Khon Kaen University, Thailand* The International Information & Library Review (2011) 43, 221e229 *2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
[12]  Evaluating human factors in customer relationship management Case study: private banks of Shiraz city Mehdi Bagheri Ghalenooiea,*, Hosein Khorrami Sarvestania Department of Industrial Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushher, Iran*Procedia Economics and Finance 36 (2016) 363-373.
[13]  Customer relationship management (CRM) – How to build strong online relationship with the 10.Customers Monika Angeloska-Dichovska, PhD University St. Kliment Ohridski – Bitola, Faculty of Economics - Prilep Marjan Angeleski, PhD University St. Kliment Ohridski – Bitola, Faculty of Economics – Prilep*.
[14]  Customer relationship management as a business process * Douglas M. Lambert Department of Marketing and Logistics, Fisher College of Business, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA* journal of Business & Industrial Marketing 25/1 (2010) 4–17 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited [ISSN 0885-8624].
[15]  Application development in process firms: adding value to customer products and production systems Thomas Lager1 and Per Storm2 1 Centre for Innovation, Technology and Entrepreneurship, Grenoble Ecole de, Management, BP 127 – 38003, Grenoble Cedex 01, France. 2 Department of Material Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.* R&D Management 43, 3, 2013. © 2013 The Authors. R&D Management © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
[16]  Factors for success in customer relationship management (CRM) systems Wilson, H.N., Daniel, E.M. and McDonald, M.H.B. In print for Journal of Marketing Management, vol 17 (2001) Cranfield School of Management, Cranfield, Bedford, MK43 0AL, UK.
[17]  The effect of supply chain responsiveness on customer development David Asamoah, Dorcas Nuertey, Benjamin Agyei-Owusu and Joseph Akyeh Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana* The International Journal of Logistics Management Vol. 32 No. 4, 2021 pp. 1190-1213 © Emerald Publishing Limited 0957-4093.
[18]  The impact of information technology and communication systems on the agility of supply chain management systems Roya Dehgani Mizan University, Tabriz, Iran, and Nima Jafari Navimipour Department of Computer Engineering, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran* Kybernetes © Emerald Publishing Limited 0368-492X.
[19]  The impact of Information Technology on the development of Supply Chain Competitive Advantage Catherine Marinagia *, Panagiotis Trivellasb , Damianos P. Sakas c a,b Department of Logistics, Technological Educational Institute of Central Greece, GR32200, Thiva, GREECE c Department of Informatics and Telecommunications, University of Peloponnese, GR22100, Tripoli, GREECE* Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 147 (2014) 586-591.
[20]  The Impact Of Operational Quality: A supply Chain View Vijay R. Kannan Department of Business Administration Utah State University Logan, UT 84322-3510, USA, Email: Keah Choon Tan Department of Management University of Nevada, Las Vegas Las Vegas, NV 89154-6009, USA, September 18, 2004.
[21]  Understanding trust influencing factors in social media communication: A qualitative study Xusen Chenga,∗, Shixuan Fua,1, Gert-Jan de Vreede b,2 a University of International Business and Economics, Beijing 100029, China b University of South Florida, Tampa 33620, USA* International Journal of Information Management 37 (2017) 25–35.
[22]  The role of personal relationships in facilitating supply chain communications: A qualitative study David M. Gligor and Chad W. Autry the University of Tennessee* Journal of Supply Chain Management, Volume 48, Number 1, January 2012.
[23]  The impact of intellectual capital on supply chain agility and collaborative knowledge creation in responding to unprecedented pandemic crises Khaled Saleh Al-Omoush a,* , Daniel Palacios-Marqu´es b , Klaus Ulrich c a Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, Amman Jordan b Universitat Polit`ecnica de Val`encia, Spain c ESIC Business & Marketing School, Spain* Technological Forecasting & Social Change 178 (2022) 121603.
[24]  Mechanisms Influencing Knowledge Acquisition and Digital Supply Chain Management: A conceptual Paper Tamma Elhachemi The Faculty of Economic, Commercial and Management Sciences, University of Echahid Hamma Lakhdar, Eloued, Algeria Abdesslam Menacer Economics, Management and Commerce Faculty, Financial and Accounting department, Lounici Ali University, Blida 2, Algeria Faouzi Mehirig The Faculty of Economic, Commercial and Management Sciences, University of Echahid Hamma Lakhdar, Eloued, Algeria* Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry (TOJQI) Volume 12, Issue 6, July, 2021: 5079-5091.
[25]  Logistics Flow Optimization for Advanced Management of the Crisis Situation Imane CHAKIRa , Mohamed EL KHAILIa *, Mohamed MESTARIa a Laboratory SSDIA, ENSET Mohammedia, Hassan II University of Casablanca,BP. 159, Mohammedia, Morocco* Procedia Computer Science 175 (2020) 419–426* The 15th International Conference on Future Networks and Communications (FNC) August 9-12, 2020, Leuven, Belgium.
[26]  Coordination and responsiveness issues in SMEs supply chains: a review* Ravinder Kumar Amity University, Rajesh Kumar Singh Management Development Institute Gurgaon, India* this publication at:
[27]  The Maturity of Humanitarian Logistics against Recurrent Crises Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu 1,*, Mario Chong 2 , Jorge Vargas-Florez 3 , Irineu de Brito Jr. 4 , Carlos Osorio-Ramirez 5 , Eric Piatyszek 6 and Renato Quiliche Altamirano 2 1 Supply Chain, Purcahsing and Project Management Department, Excelia Group, La Rochelle Business School, 17000 La Rochelle, France 2 Engineering Department, Universidad del Pacifico, Lima 15072, Peru; (M.C.); (R.Q.A.) 3 Engineering Department, Pontifica Universidad Católica del Peru, Lima 15088, Peru; 4 Environmental Engineering Department, Sao Paulo State University, São José dos Campos 12247-004, Brazil; 5 School of Business and Public Accounting, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá Cra 45, Colombia; 6 Département Génie de l’Environnement et des Organisations, Institut Henri Fayol, Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 42000 Saint-Et
[28]  A Responsiveness View of logistics and supply chain management Robert Glenn Richey1 | Anthony S. Roath1 | Frank G. Adams2 | Andreas Wieland3 1 Raymond J. Harbert College of Business, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA 2 Department of Marketing, Quantitative Analysis & Business Law, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA 3 Department of Operations Management, Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark* Journal of Business Logistics published by Wiley Periodicals LLC Received: 15 April 2020 | Revised: 28 July 2021 | Accepted: 23 August 2021.
[29]  The 4Rs supply chain resilience framework: A capability perspective Nidal Yousef Dwaikat1 | Saad Zighan2 | Moheeb Abualqumboz3 | Ziad Alkalha4 1 Department of Industrial Engineering, An‐Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine 2 Business Administration, University of Petra, Amman, Jordan 3 Project and Operations Management, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK 4 School of Business, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan* J Contingencies and Crisis Management. 2022; 30: 281–294.* Received: 2 June 2021 | Revised: 5 January 2022 | Accepted: 10 January 2022.
[30]  A new multi-objective stochastic model for a forward/reverse logistic network design with responsiveness and quality level Majid Ramezani a , Mahdi Bashiri a,⇑ , Reza Tavakkoli-Moghaddam b aDepartment of Industrial Engineering, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran bDepartment of Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran* Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 328–344 received 7 June 2010 Received in revised form 5 February 2012 Accepted 28 February 2012 Available online 7 March 2012.
[31]  Fingerprinting the Datacenter: Automated Classification of Performance Crises Peter Bod´ık EECS Department UC Berkeley Berkeley, CA, USA Moises Goldszmidt Microsoft Research Mountain View, CA, USA Armando Fox EECS Department UC Berkeley Berkeley, CA, USA Dawn B. Woodard Cornell University Ithaca, NY, USA Hans Andersen Microsoft Redmond, WA, USA*, April 13–16, 2010, Paris, France. Copyright c 2010 ACM 978-1-60558-577-2/10/04.
[32]  Measuring organizational responsiveness: the development of a validated survey instrument James Hoyt College of Business Administration, Troy State University, Troy, Alabama, USA, and Faizul Huq and Patrick Kreiser College of Business, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, USA* Management Decision Vol. 45 No. 10, 2007 pp. 1573-1594 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0025-1747.
[33]  Assessing Effectiveness of Supply Chain Collaboration: An Empirical Study, Amarpreet S. Kohli University of Southern Maine John B. Jensen University of South Carolina* Supply Chain Forum an International Journal Vol. 11 - N°2 - 2010• January 2010.
[34]  On the Inattention to Digital Confidentiality in Operations and Supply Chain Research Brett Massimino* Cornell University, 340 Statler Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA, John V. Gray, Yingchao Lan Fisher College of Business, The Ohio State University, 2100 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA,, Production and Operations Management Vol. 27, No. 8, August 2018, pp. 1492–1515.
[35]  A theoretical review of flexibility, agility and responsiveness in the operations management literature Toward a conceptual definition of customer responsiveness Ednilson Santos Bernardes and Mark D. Hanna Department of Finance and Quantitative Analysis, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia, USA* International Journal of Operations & Production Management Vol. 29 No. 1, 2009 pp. 30-53 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0144-3577.
[36]  Drivers of Organizational Responsiveness Experiences of a Military Crisis Response Organization Erik de Waard • Henk Volberda • Joseph Soeters* Journal of Organization Design JOD, 2(2): 1-14 (2013).
[37]  Foundations of Responsive Crisis Management: Institutional Design and Information Kees Boersma, Department of Organization Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and Jeroen Wolbers, Institute for Security and Global Affairs, Leiden University.
[38]  Implementation of strategic green orientation in supply chain An empirical study of manufacturing firms Paul Hong College of Business Administration, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA He-Boong Kwon Division of Business, Concord University, Concord, West Virginia, USA, and James Jungbae Roh Rohrer College of Business, Rowan University, Glassboro, New Jersey, USA* European Journal of Innovation Management Vol. 12 No. 4, 2009 pp. 512-532 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 1460-1060.
[39]  The Role of Supply Chain Integration and Agile Practices in Improving Lead Time During the COVID-19 Crisis Haitham M. Alzoubi, Skyline University College, UAE Hamzah Elrehail, Abu Dhabi School of Management, UAE Jalal Rajeh Hanaysha, School of Business, Skyline University College, UAE Anwar Al-Gasaymeh, Applied Science Private University, Jordan Raid Al-Adaileh, Skyline University College, UAE* International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology Volume 13 • Issue 1.
[40]  Crisis management practices and approaches: Insights from major supply chain crises Stavros T. Ponisa *, Athanasia Ntallab a Heroon Polytechniou 9, Zografos, Athens, 15780, Greece b Heroon Polytechniou 9, Zografos, Athens, 15780, Greece* Procedia Economics and Finance 39 ( 2016 ) 668 – 673* 3rd GLOBAL CONFERENCE on BUSINESS, ECONOMICS, MANAGEMENT and TOURISM, 26-28 November 2015, Rome, Italy* Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of BEMTUR- 2015.
[41]  Decision making in advance of a supply chain crisis Brad Hittle VingTech Corporation, Biddeford, Maine, USA, and Karen Moustafa Leonard Department of Management and Marketing, Doermer School of Business and Management Sciences, Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, Indiana, USA* Management Decision Vol. 49 No. 7, 2011 pp. 1182-1193 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0025-1747.
[42]  International Supply Chains and Trade Elasticity in Times of Global Crisis* Hubert Escaith: Economic Research and Statistics, WTO Nannette Lindenberg: Institute of Empirical Economic Research, University of Osnabrück Sébastien Miroudot: Trade and Agriculture Directorate, Trade Policy Linkages and Services Division, OECD * Staff Working Paper ERSD-2010-08 Date: February 2010.
[43]  A framework of sustainable supply chain management: moving toward new theory Craig R. Carter and Dale S. Rogers University of Nevada, College of Business Administration, Reno, Nevada, USA* International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management Vol. 38 No. 5, 2008 pp. 360-387 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0960-0035.
[44]  Organizational Learning from Extreme Performance Experience: The Impact of Success and Recovery Experience June-Young Kim Marquette University, Ji-Yub Kim University of Southern California Anne S. Miner University of Wisconsin – Madison* Published version. Organization Science, Volume 20, No. 6 (November-December 2009).
[45]  Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research Methods for Business: A Skill-Building Approach (6th ed.). (7, Ed.) Chichester, UK: Wiley & Sons Ltd.
[46]  Field, A. (2013). Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS Statistics (4th Ed.). (M. Carmichael, Ed.) London: SAGE.
[47]  Hair, J. F., Celsi, M., Money, A., Samouel, P., & Page, M. (2016). Essentials of Business Research Methods. New York: Routledge.
[48]  Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis. (7th Ed.) Pearson.
[49]  Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) (2nd Ed.). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.
[50]  Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. New York: Guilford Press.
[51]  Byrne, B. (2016). Structural equation modeling with AMOS. New York, NY: Routledge.
[52]  Mackenzie, S. B. & Podsakoff, P. M. 2012. Common method bias in marketing: causes, mechanisms, and procedural remedies. Journal of Retailing, 88, 542-555.
[53]  Pallant, J. (2010). SPSS survival manual, 4th. England: McGraw-Hill Education.
[54]  Benitez-Amado, J., Henseler, J., & Castillo, A. (2017). Development and Update of Guidelines to Perform and Report Partial Least Squares Path Modeling in Information Systems Research. 21 Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS 2017), (pp. 1-15). Langkawi. Retrieved from
[55]  Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2014). Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM): An Emerging Tool in Business Research. European Business Review, 26(2), 106-121.
[56]  Garson, G. D. (2016). Partial Least Squares: Regression and Structural Equation Models. Asheboro, NC, USA: Statistical Associates Publishers. Retrieved from
[57]  Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Mena, J. A. (2012). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(3), 414–433.